Musculoskeletal System: Bone

The musculoskeletal system consists of the bones, cartilage, muscles, joints, tendons and ligaments in the human body. The musculoskeletal system support the body, allow for motion and protect internal organs. It can be viewed as two separate systems which function together. Cartilage and bone are specialised forms of connective tissue. For muscle fibers, see the section on Contractile cells. The purpose of this and the section on bone is to learn and understand the components and organization of cartilage and bone, how this structure relate to the function of bone and cartilage, and the differences between the development and growth of cartilage and bone.

Slides for this week

For each slide, complete the work as listed below. Completing the whole slide will assist you in understanding and retention. For each slide, allocate an A3 spread in your workbook. Remember to add the slide and its page number to the index in the front of the book.


  1. Name the 3 types of cartilage.
  2. Tabulate the histological differences between chondroblasts and chondrocytes.
  3. Name the 2 types of growth of cartilage.
  4. Name the 4 functions of adipose tissue.
  5. How is a fibrous scar formed?
  6. Name the 4 main functions of bone.
  7. What is bone composed of?
  8. What does a Haversian system consist of?
  9. In a longitudinal section of long bone, what is the orientation of Haversian and Volkmannís canals?
  10. Where is an interstitial system present?
  11. Where are the inner and outer circumferential lamellae located?
  12. Name the 4 main types of bone cells.
  13. Which cells are affected in osteosarcoma?
  14. What secondary functions are associated with the musculoskeletal system?
  15. Tabulate the similarities and differences between bone and cartilage.
  16. How does the properties of cartilage and bone differ from other connective tissues?
  17. How does cartilage and bone receive nutrients?
  18. Describe the effect exercise has on bone tissue?
  19. Discuss the appearance of primary and secondary ossification centers
  20. Explain contractibility and extensibility.
  21. Why does an injury to cartilage, especially hyaline cartilage, heal much more slowly than a bone fracture?
  22. Describe the structure and function of cartilage
  23. What are the mechanisms of cartilage growth?
  24. Are blood vessels found in cartilage and how does this relate to the nutrition of cartilage?
  25. What are the differences between intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification?
  26. Are there identifiable stem cells in cartilage?
  27. Make a table -> Compare the organization and content of cells, fibers and ground substance within the different types of cartilage and bone. Describe the maturation process of cartilage (chondrocytes) and bone (osteocytes).
  28. What is the regenerative potential of cartilage?
  29. Describe what changes occur with aging in the matrix of cartilage.
  30. Describe the location of perichondrium and how this relate to the mechanisms of appositional and interstitial growth.
  31. Describe the similarities and differences between cartilage and bone.
  32. Complete the following table relating to the three types of cartilage.

© julie 2020 marius loots