Urinary System


Urinary System

The urinary system maintain homoeostasis and is responsible for the elimination of waste from the human body. You should be able to:
  • Describe the structures and associated functions of the components of the urinary system.
  • Identify the structures of the urinary system.
  • Describe the function of each part of the urinary system.
  • Draw and annotate the structures of the urinary system.
  • Describe and trace the flow of blood and filtrates through the urinary system.
  • Recognise and describe the segments of the nephron based on histology and location.
  • Describe the histological differences between the renal cortex and medulla.
  • Identify and describe the structures of the glomerulus.
  • Describe the filtration membrane and how this relates to its function.
  • Identify and describe the structures of the juxtaglomerular apparatus.
  • Recognise and describe the ureter, bladder and urethra.
  • Describe the cells found throughout the urinary system.


  • Describe the flow of blood through the kidney.
  • Describe the production and flow of urine through the kidney up to and including the urethra.
  • Make an annotated drawing of the macroscopic view of the kidney.
  • Make an annotated diagram of a nephron, including the juxtaglomerular apparatus. Indicate the flow of blood and water in each part, and how solutes are filtered, secreted and reabsorbed.

Slides for this week

For each slide, complete the work as listed below. Completing the whole slide will assist you in understanding and retention. For each slide, allocate an A3 spread in your workbook. Remember to add the slide and its page number to the index in the front of the book.


  1. Name the two main components of the nephron.
  2. Name the three zones of the glomerular basement membrane.
  3. What is nephrotic syndrome?
  4. Name the three components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus.
  5. Name the type of epithelium which lines the lower urinary tract.
  6. What is the difference between a distended and contracted bladder?
  7. Shortly describe how the kidneys assist in maintaining acid–base balance.
  8. Compare and contrast male and female urethras.
  9. Name the histological structures found in the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
  10. What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
  11. Describe the interaction between the kidney and other systems, including the skin, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow and cardiovascular system.

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