Musculoskeletal System: Cartilage
The musculoskeletal system consists of the bones, cartilage, muscles, joints, tendons and ligaments in the human body. The musculoskeletal system support the body, allow for motion and protect internal organs. It can be viewed as two separate systems which function together. Cartilage and bone are specialised forms of connective tissue. For muscle fibers, see the section on Contractile cells.
The purpose of this and the section on bone is to learn and understand the components and organization of cartilage and bone, how this structure relate to the function of bone and cartilage, and the differences between the development and growth of cartilage and bone.
You should be able to:
- Identify and describe cartilage and bone.
- Identify and describe matrix of and cells present in cartilage and bone.
- Describe the properties of cartilage and bone.
- Describe the formation of cartilage and bone.
- Define the cellular and non-cellular elements of cartilage and bone.
- Identify and describe hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage.
- Locate and identify the perichondrium in hyaline and elastic cartilage.
- Explain the function of the perichondrium.
- Describe the differences between the three types of cartilage.
- Describe how the structure of cartilage relate to its properties.
- Identify the different types of bone.
- List the steps and describe the process of endochondral and intramembranous ossification.
- Identify the zones present during endochondral bone formation.
- Describe the process of bone remodelling.
- Identify and describe periosteum and endosteum.
- Name the 3 types of cartilage.
- Tabulate the histological differences between chondroblasts and chondrocytes.
- Name the 2 types of growth of cartilage.
- Name the 4 functions of adipose tissue.
- How is a fibrous scar formed?
- Name the 4 main functions of bone.
- What is bone composed of?
- What does a Haversian system consist of?
- In a longitudinal section of long bone, what is the orientation of Haversian and Volkmannís canals?
- Where is an interstitial system present?
- Where are the inner and outer circumferential lamellae located?
- Name the 4 main types of bone cells.
- Which cells are affected in osteosarcoma?
- What secondary functions are associated with the musculoskeletal system?
- Tabulate the similarities and differences between bone and cartilage.
- How does the properties of cartilage and bone differ from other connective tissues?
- How does cartilage and bone receive nutrients?
- Describe the effect exercise has on bone tissue?
- Discuss the appearance of primary and secondary ossification centers
- Explain contractibility and extensibility.
- Why does an injury to cartilage, especially hyaline cartilage, heal much more slowly than a bone fracture?
- Describe the structure and function of cartilage
- What are the mechanisms of cartilage growth?
- Are blood vessels found in cartilage and how does this relate to the nutrition of cartilage?
- What are the differences between intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification?
- Are there identifiable stem cells in cartilage?
- Make a table -> Compare the organization and content of cells, fibers and ground substance within the different types of cartilage and bone. Describe the maturation process of cartilage (chondrocytes) and bone (osteocytes).
- What is the regenerative potential of cartilage?
- Describe what changes occur with aging in the matrix of cartilage.
- Describe the location of perichondrium and how this relate to the mechanisms of appositional and interstitial growth.
- Describe the similarities and differences between cartilage and bone.
- Complete the following table relating to the three types of cartilage.
|Amorphous ground substance
|Location and function